Exosome will be the new star in kidney cancer treatment
The diagnosis and treatment of kidney cancer are the focus and the difficulty of cancer research, and recent studies show that exosomes could be a major player in this process.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), also known as kidney cancer, accounts for 3% of malignant diseases in adults. It is one of the most common malignant tumors of the urinary system and the incidence has increased from year to year. Early kidney cancer patients have no obvious symptoms, while the diagnosis is mainly based on imaging tests. More than 16% of patients have already shown distant metastases when they receive the first diagnosis.
Surgical resection is currently the only effective cure for RCC. However, more than 20% of patients experience local recurrence or distant metastases after surgery. Most kidney cancers are not sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy once recurrence or metastasis occurs, and molecular targeted drug treatment is prone to drug resistance, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 40%.
Therefore, how to identify kidney cancer early, effectively predict the risk of tumor metastasis, and discover new medication goals has always been the focus and difficulty of kidney cancer research.
Role of exosomal proteins
In 1983, Johnstone first discovered exosomes in reticulocyte culture fluid, which are a class of extracellular vesicles with a diameter of 30 to 100 nm and a lipid-bilayer membrane structure. They are widely used in various body fluids such as peripheral blood, urine, and ascites, carry a variety of signaling molecules and biologically active substances, and participate in a variety of biological processes such as body immunity, intercellular communication, tumorigenesis and development, etc. In recent years Years, exosome therapy for urinary tumor diseases has become a research focus such as prostate cancer and bladder cancer.
The diagnosis of kidney cancer is based on imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT and lacks effective serological markers. Therefore, many kidney cancer patients have metastasized at the time of diagnosis and have poor prognosis. Exosomes are specific to cell origin and can be extracted from body fluids. Therefore, many scholars at home and abroad believe that exosomes can be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of kidney cancer.
Currently, many studies have found significant differences in the expression of specific components of exosomes between kidney cancer patients and normal people, suggesting that exosomes can be used as serological markers for the early diagnosis and prognostic assessment of kidney cancer.
Extracellular Vesicles in Renal Diseases
A scientist from Creative Biolabs, a top-class biotech manufacturer that offers exosome related services, said “a larger study is therefore expected to reveal the secret of the exosome in kidney cancer.”
In clinical treatment, many kidney cancer patients are sensitive to targeted drug treatment, but thereafter there will be varying degrees of drug resistance. However, the mechanism of drug resistance in kidney cancer is complex and unclear. It is known that tumor cells can excrete chemotherapeutic agents via exosomes, while miRNAs, resistance-related proteins and other substances are transported through exosomes to mediate the transmission of drug resistance, so that non-resistant tumor cell subpopulations become resistant. Studies have shown that exosomes help present tumor-specific antigens, have the potential to promote active and passive immunity, which offers a new biological approach to treating kidney cancer.
Exosomes secreted by kidney cancer cells are common in patient’s body fluids such as blood and urine. Not only do they have the advantages of the availability of sources, non-invasive examination, specificity of tumors, but they can also easily penetrate into the biofilm, and well protect the rich bioactive substances from degradation for their small size, strong mobility, and natural lipid Double layers.